The Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833.
This divided the mission lands into land grants, which became many of the Ranchos of California.
In the end, the missions had mixed results in their objectives: to convert, educate, and "civilize" the indigenous population and transform the natives into Spanish colonial citizens.
claimed the Alta California region for England in 1579, a full generation before the first English landing in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.
During his circumnavigation of the world, Drake anchored in a harbor just north of present-day San Francisco, California, and claimed the territory for Queen Elizabeth I.
To preserve an uneasy peace with Spain and to avoid the prospect of Spain threatening England's claims in the New World, Queen Elizabeth I ordered Drake's discovery and claim kept secret.
Beginning in 1492 with the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Kingdom of Spain sought to establish missions to convert indigenous people in Nueva España (New Spain), which consisted of the Caribbean, Mexico, and most of what is now the Southwestern United States) to Roman Catholicism.
This would facilitate colonization of these lands awarded to Spain by the Catholic Church, including that region later known as Alta California.
Only 48 years after Columbus discovered the Americas for Europe, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado set out from Compostela, New Spain on February 23, 1540, at the head of a large expedition.Accompanied by 400 European men-at-arms (mostly Spaniards), 1,300 to 2,000 Mexican Indian allies, several Indian and African slaves, and four Franciscan monks, he traveled from Mexico through parts of the southwestern United States to present-day Kansas between 15. At left is the façade of the first adobe church with its added espadaña; behind the campanario, or "bell wall" is the "Sacred Garden." The Mission has earned a reputation as the "Loveliest of the Franciscan Ruins." The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of 21 religious outposts; established by Catholic priests of the Franciscan order between 17, to expand Christianity among the Native Americans northwards into what is today the U. Following a long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Latin America, the missionaries forced the native Californians to live in settlements called reductions. The missions were part of a major effort by the Spanish Empire to extend colonization into the most northern and western parts of Spain's North American claims.The missionaries introduced European fruits, vegetables, cattle, horses, ranching and technology into the region that became the New Spain province of Alta California; however, the missions also brought serious negative consequences to the Native American populations with whom the missionaries and other Spaniards came in contact.Mexico achieved independence in 1821, taking Alta California along with it, but the missions maintained authority over native neophytes and control of vast land holdings until the 1830s.